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Major sports discipline




Acrobatics – Although it only became a competitive sport,acrobatics has long been an important component of modern artistic sports such as gymnastics ,diving and figre skating .From the Greek for “walking on tiptoe”, it includes a variety of manoevrs,falls barrels and poles.
The word aerobics was coined by dr kennath H copper a usa physician , to denote a system of exercise to help prevent coronary artery disease .In 1983 Howard and Karen Schwartz organized Sports fitness International to oversee a new competitive sport they had developed,known as sport aerobics.
The first world championship were held in 1990 at san Diego with athletes from 15 countries competing.
Archery is one of the most ancient of sports. During the Paleolithic era the use of bow and arrows for hunting probably developed independently in many places throughout the world.
The modern sports of target archery originated in England during the 14th century ,when the longbow became the English army’s most important weapon, first at the battle of Crecy and later at poitiers and agnicourt. From 1330 to 1414,English kings banned all other sports because they diverted time from archery and a royal decree of 1363 required all Englishmen to practice archery on Sunday and holidays.The international archery federation was established in 1931 to hold international archery competitions. In 1969 , the federation included field archery to the set of archery events in the world championship. Rules specified by the federation apply for all international tournaments.Archery is a medal sports in Summer Olympics.
Diving , Springboard and Platform – Diving ,springboard and platform ,sport of entering the water from a raised position,often while executing tumbles twists and other acrobatic maneuvers .In most dives the upper part of the body enters the water first and the arms are extended straight over the head.The earliest recorded major diving major diving competition took place in 1871 off the London Bridge .Since the diving become part of the most aquatic meets and is a U.S. intercollegiate event.Men’s diving became part of the Olympic games in 1904, when it was called fancy diving .Women’s diving joined the program in 1912 synchronized diving became a medal event in 2000.
The English are considered the first modern society to develop swimming as a sport.By 1837 , regular swimming competitions were being held in London’s six artificial pools, organized by the National Society in England .As the sport grew in popularity ,many more pools were built, and when a new governing body , the amateur Swimmimng Association of Great Briatain , was organized in 1880 ,it numbers 300 members clubs.
Stroke Development – Although people have swum since ancient times , swimming strokes have been refined in past 10 years .Competitive swimming , most notably , the modern Olympic games ,begun in Athens Greece in 1896 increased interest in stokes.Scientific stroke analysis has helped produce more varied stokes ,and greater speed and a better understanding of propulsion through the water.
Baseball – Baseball developed from variations of the English game of rounders from related regional and local games games and from children’s game like one ols cat, all of which had evolved through centuries .The traditional story that Abner doubleday invented baseball in 1839 in coopers town , NY has bee discredited .Rather in the 1840’s Alexender Cartwright of the New York Knickerbockr Club standardized many of the features and fied dimensions atill in use today.It is widely thought that the first game of modern baseball was played by the knickerbockers in the fall of 1845 in a park called Elysian Fields in Hoboken ,NJ Sportswriter.Henry Chadwick wrote 1858 the first rule book ,and though the rule continue to change y small degrees by 1900 the game was essentially that o f today.
Any one of the games played with a tapered , leather tipped stick called a cue and various numbers of balls on a rectangular,c loth- covered slate table with raised and cushioned edges.Games similar to billiards were popular in England and France in the 16th cent , and evidence even suggests that a billiards like game was played in the 14th cent.The country of origin is disputed England ,France Italy ,Spain and China have been credited by various historians with its invention. The game in its present form was probably fully developed by 1800.There are three main types of billiards: carom billiards is played with three balls , a cue ball and two object balls on a pocketless table, scoring is b y caroms only .Pocket billiards is played with 15 object balls and a cue ball on a table with six pockets the essential object of the game is to cause the object balls to enter the pockets. Snooker is similar to pocket billiards , except that it uses 21 object balls and smaller pockets.
Canoe /Kayak
Canada also takes for the world’s first known canoe factory which began operations at Trois –Riviers ,Quebec around 1750 .Today the sprint canoes used at the Olympics are also called Canadian canoed .In 1924 canoeing and kayaking debuted at the Paris Olympics Games as a demonstration sport with flatwater races in singles , doubles and fours.Canada made an auspicious debut , winning all the canoeing or single – blade events , while the US won all the races in Kayak , or double blades.
Football was first played in China which was called Tsu – chu in the 4th and 3rd BC.However, modern football is said to have evolved from England .The rules of the games were standardized in 1863 with the formation of the Football Association (FBA) in England .The games is also called Soccer or Association Football.Football has figured in Olympics since 1896 even though the international federation was formed only in 1904.
India played Football for the first time in Olympics in 1948 in London ,Football has been one of the sports in the Asian Games right from its inception 1951.
Number of Players—two teams of 11 players each.
Kabbadi – Kabbadi is team pursuit sport, primarily played in India Kabbadi is known by various names in India hu tutu . The game is also popular in surrounding countries like Bangladesh , srilanka and Pakistan.In Malasia Kabbadi is called Chedigudu in Thailand Tee Chub in Srilanka Gudu and in Nepal it is called Dodo.
Kho Kho
Kho kho is an Indian game .It is popular in the whol e of India .It originated at pune Gymkana in the state of Maharashtra .Its team in India is called Kho kho Fedration of India.Kho kho is a game played in 2 innings by 12 nominated players out od 15 on each side. Initially 9 players start the game and 3 are kept reserve .One team becomes the chaser and the other the defenders or runners .In the game , the chaser purses the runners tags and touches the and makes out .Each team has to chase and defend for 9 minutes twice in a match.
It is a game of hitting a small hard ball with specially made clubs over an outdoor course sometimes called links .The object is to deposit the ball in a specific number of cups or holes , using as feew strokes as possible .Although golf’s place of origin is uncertain ,Scotland has the strongest claim .As early as 1457 it was banned there as a threat to archery practice . which was considered vital to national defence..The royal and ancient Golf Club of St Andrews ,Scotland is the international shrine of Golf, and the club’s basic rules are the whole wide standards.
Handball is one of the world’s fastest games .It is played between two teams in which a ball is hit hand in a walled court.A team moves the ball by dribbling passing or bouncing it as they run.Players may stop, catch, throw ,bounce or strike the ball with any part of the body above the knees .Each team tries to score goals by directing the bal past the opposition’s goalkeeper into the net.
Soccer -One of the earliest forms of soccer in which players kicked a ball on a small field has been traced as far back 1004 B.C. in Japan .The Munich Ethological Museum in Germany has a Chinese text from approximately 50 B.C. that mentions the game very similar to Soccer that were played between teams from China and Japan .
Softball- It is a variant of baseball played with a larger ball on a smaller field .Invented in Chicago as an indoor games ,it was at various times called indoor baseball , mush ball play ground ball kitten ball.The name softball was given to the game in 1926 .A tournament at the Chicago World’s fair spurred interest in the game .
Water Polo
It is thought that british resort owners invented this rather strange parttime during the mid-1899 , in an attempt – however odd to attract guest .The first matches were played on nearby lakes and rivers , and the game’s passing similiarity to horseback polo earned it the name water polo.
After the elimination of the paddles and barrels , the game was adapted to swimming pools in 1870 by the swimming Club , who hosted the first official game at the Crystal Palace plunge in London .Matches resembles rugby on water ,and were bassed more on brute strength than athletic skill.Underwater wrestling bouts would leave some players barely conscious when they rose to the surface.
A common trick players used was to place the small ball in their swimming trunk and swim underwear towards the goal, where they would score by removing the ball and slamming it onto the pool deck.
Men’s game area in wwater 20 m to 30 m long and 8 to 20 m wide and women’s game area not execeeding 25 m by 17 m.The round water proof ball has a circumference of 068 to 71 m and weighs 400 gm to 450 gm goals are 3 metre apart and generally 0.9 m above water .

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